Águila, C., Sicilla-Camacho, Á., Rojas Tejada, A. J., Delgado-Noguera, M. A., & Gard, M. (2008). Postmodern values and leisure in young Spanish university students: An exploratory study. Leisure Sciences, 30(4), 275-292.
Akyildiz, M. (2013). A serious view of leisure: Serious leisure theory in leisure researches. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences. 4(2), 46-59. (in Turkish, with English abstract)
Akyildiz, M. (2013). The relationship between serious and casual participants’ personality characteristics with leisure satisfaction and life satisfaction. PhD dissertation, School of Physical Education and Sport, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey. (in Turkish)
Alasuutari, P., Luomanen, J., & Peteri, V. (2013). Hobbies and vices, book lovers and nerds: Discursive management of the digital media environment. Television and New Media September, 14(5), 457-475.
Argyle, M., & Lu, L. (1992). New directions in the psychology of leisure. The new psychologist, 1, 8-11.
Attwood, F., & Smith, C. (2013). Leisure sex: More sex! Better sex! Sex is fucking brilliant! Sex, sex, sex, SEX. In Blackshaw, T. (Ed.), Routledge handbook of leisure studies (pp. 325-336). London: Routledge.
Beedie, P. (2008). Adventure tourism as a ‘new frontier’ in leisure. World Leisure Journal, 50(3), 173-183.
Berdychevsky, L., & Gibson, H. (2015). Women's sexual sensation seeking and risk taking in leisure travel. Journal of Leisure Research, 47, 621-646.
Berdychevsky, L., & Nimrod, G. (2015). “Let's talk about sex": Discussions in seniors' online communities. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(4), 467-484.
Brabham, D. C. (2012). The myth of amateur crowds. Information, Communication & Society, 15(3), 394-410.
Bramante, C A. (1999). O lazer levado a sério. Agitação. São Paulo: CIEE Nacional.
Brett-MacLean, P. J. (2007). Art(ists) in the making: Exploring narratives of coming to art in later life. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia (Canada).
Brown, C. A. (2004). The social world of a Society of Stranders festival: Shag dancing as serious leisure. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University (USA).
Brown, C. A. (2007). The Carolina shaggers: Dance as serious leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 39, 623-647.
Budhathoki, N. R., & Haythornthwaite, C. (2013). Motivation for open collaboration: Crowd and community models and the case of OpenStreetMap. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(5), 548-575.
Caldwell, L. L. (2011). Leisure. In B. B. Brown & M. J. Prinstein (Eds.), Encyclopedia of adolescence, Vol. 2, (pp. 169-177). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Choi, S-H. (2003). Investigation of the ‘serious leisure’ and ‘casual leisure.’ Korean Journal of Physical Education, 42, 489-496. (in Korean)
Codina, N., Pestana, J. V., & Stebbins, R. A. (2017). Serious and casual leisure activities in the construction of young adult identity: A study based on participants’ self-descriptions. OBETS: Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 12(1), 65-80.
Cole, J., & Scott, D. (1999). Segmenting participation in wildlife watching: a comparison of casual wildlife watchers and serious birders. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 4(4), 44-61.
Crawford, D. W., Jackson, E. L., & Godbey, G. (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13(4), 309–320. doi:10.1080/01490409109513147.
Dattilo, A. E. L., Ewert, A., & Dattilo, J. (2012). Learning as leisure: Motivation and outcome in adult free time learning. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 30(1), 1-18.
Davies, N. (2016). Who walks, where and why? Practitioners’ observations and perspectives on recreational walkers at UK tourist destinations. Annals of Leisure Research,Online edition, 14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11745398.2016.1250648.
Davies, N. J., Lumsdon, L. M., & Weston, R. (2012). Developing recreational trails: Motivations for recreational walking. Tourism Planning & Development, 9 (1), 77-88.
Derom, I., & Taks, M. (2011). Participants' experiences in two types of sporting events: A quest for evidence of the SL-CL continuum. Journal of Leisure Research, 43, 383-402.
Downward, P., & Lumsdon, L. (2001). The development of recreational cycle routes: An evaluation of user needs. Managing Leisure, 6(1), 50-60.
Drozda, C. (2004). Lifestyles of youth in auto theft: An exploratory study. Masters thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Calgary (Canada).
Ellison, C. J., & White, A. L. (2017). Exploring leisure and retirement for people with intellectual disabilities. Annals of Leisure Research, 20(2), 188-205, DOI: 10.1080/11745398.2015.1122535
Elsweiler, D., Wilson M. L. & Kirkegaard-Lunn, B. (2011). Understanding casual-leisure information behaviour. In Spink, A. and Heinstrom, J. (Eds.) New directions in information behaviour (pp. 211-241). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Fawbert, J. (2006). Replica football shirts: Serious or casual leisure? In S. Elkington, I. Jones, & L. Lawrence, (Eds.). Serious leisure: Extensions and applications (pp. 123-144). Eastbourne, UK: LSA Publications, University of Brighton.
Fenech, A., & Baker, M. (2008). Casual leisure and sensory diet: A concept for improving quality of life in neuropalliative conditions. NeuroRehabilitation - An Interdisciplinary Journal, 23, 369-376.
Fenech, A. (2009). Interactive drama in complex neurological disability management. Disability and Rehabilitation, 31(2), 118-130.
Fenech, A. (2010). Inspiring transformations through participation in drama for individuals with neuropalliative conditions. Journal of Applied Arts and Health, 1(1), 63-80.
Fenech, A. M. (2011). Aquatic leisure satisfaction and engagement in neuropalliative disability management. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 26(3):519-527. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2011.00958.x.
Fenech, A. M. (2013). A study of engagement in casual leisure occupations by individuals who are living with neuropalliative conditions. PhD Thesis, University of Southampton, Faculty of Health Sciences, UK.
Fenech, A. M. (2014). The value placed upon the facets that contribute to meaningful leisure by activity co-ordinators. Social Care and Neurodisability, 5(4). DOI: 10.1108/SCN-02-2014-0003.
Fenech, A. M. (2015). A study of engagement in active and passive roles in casual leisure occupations. The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy, (2):6. DOI: 10.15453/2168-6408.1134.
Fenech, A. M., & Fisher, K. L. S. (2013). Lifelong and therapeutic recreation and leisure. In N. D. Zasler, D. I. Katz & R. D. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine: Principles and practice, 2nd ed. (pp. 1360-1372). New York: Demos Medical.
Finlay, A. K., Ram, N., Maggs, J. L., & Caldwell, L. L. (2012). Leisure activities, the social weekend, and alcohol use: Evidence from a daily study of
first-year college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73, 250-259.
Frew, E. A. (2006). Comedy festival attendance: Serious, project-based or casual leisure? In S. Elkington, I. Jones, & L. Lawrence (Eds.). Serious leisure: Extensions and applications (pp. 105-122). Eastbourne, UK: LSA Publications, University of Brighton.
Garcia, A. C. (2013). Explorers, detectives, matchmakers, and lion tamers: Understanding jigsaw puzzlers’ techniques and motivations. American Journal of Play, 5 (3), 308-332.
Garcia, A.C. (2016). An explorer in a cardboard land: Emotion, memory, and the embodied experience of doing jigsaw puzzles. International Journal of Play. DOI: 10.1080/21594937.2016.1203916
Gyimóthy, S. (2009). Casual observers, connoisseurs and experimentalists: A conceptual exploration of niche festival visitors. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 9(2-3), 177-205.
Henderson, S., & Spracklen, K. (2017). ‘If I had my way, I’d have been a killer’: Songwriting and its motivations for leisure and work. Leisure/Loisir, 41(2), 231-247.
Heo, J., Kim, J., Kim, B., & Heo, S. (2014). Weekend experiences and subjective well-being of retired older adults. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38(4), 598-604.
Heo, J., Lee, Y., Kim, B., & Chun, S. (2012). Contribution of relaxation on the subjective well-being of older adults. Activities, Adaptation, & Aging, 36(1), 1-10.
Howat, G., & Brown, G. (2010). Hedonic and eudaimonic experiences among wellness tourists: An exploratory enquiry. Annals of Leisure Research 13(3), 541-562.
Hutchinson, S. L., & Kleiber, D. A. (2005). Gifts of the ordinary: Casual leisure’s contributions to health and well-being. World Leisure Journal, 47(3), 2-16.
Kerins, A.J., Scott, D., & Shafer, C.S. (2007). Evaluating the efficacy of a self-classification measure of recreation specialization in the context of ultimate frisbee. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 25(3), 1-22.
Kerr, J. H., Fujiyama, H., & Campano, J. (2002). Emotion and stress in serious and hedonistic leisure sport activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 34, 272-289.
Kleiber, D. A. (2004). Reflections on the etiology of enduring interest. Boletín ADOZ, 28, 43-45.
Kooiman, B. J., & Sheehan, D. P. (2015). Interacting with the past, present, and future of exergames: At the beginning of a new life cycle of video games? Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure, 38(1), 55-73. DOI: 10.1080/07053436.2015.1006960
Kuentzel, W. F. (2012). Comment on Scott: Is integration better?” Leisure Sciences, 34, 375-376.
Larsen, E. N. (2013). Deviants or consenting adults: A human rights approach to defining and controlling deviant behavior. Sociology Mind, 3(1), 1-6.
Lee, Y., & Kim, M. (2017). Serious leisure characteristics of older adult volunteers: The case of an international sporting event. World Leisure Journal, online edition. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/10.1080/16078055.2017.1305441
Liechty, T., Genoe, M. R., & Marston, H. R. (2016). Physically active leisure and the transition to retirement: the value of context. Annals of Leisure Research, 26 May (online) DOI: 10.1080/11745398.2016.1187570.
Lin, W. C. (2009). A study of casual and serious golfers: Testing serious leisure theory (Doctoral dissertation). Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma.
Lovelock, B., Jellum, C., & Carr, A. (2016). Pulling the pin on active outdoor leisure: Building an understanding of leisure abandonment from the narratives of outdoor recreationists. Leisure Sciences, online edition: DOI: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/10.1080/01490400.2016.1229640.
Lo Verde, F.M. (2013). Introduction Mcdonaldization, Ikeaization, Appleization of leisure time: Is it cool enough? In F.M. Lo Verde, I. Modi, & G. Cappello (Eds.), Mapping Leisure across Borders (pp. xvi-xxx). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Luft, C. A. (2007). Meeting online friends: Personal relationships in the 21st century. Masters thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Calgary (Canada).
MacCosham, B. (2015). Leisure Lifestyle and Casual Leisure’s Influence on Athletic Identity, Performance and Perception of Hockey in Dropout Amateur Junior Hockey Players. Master of Arts in Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Canada.
MacCosham, B., & Gravelle, F. (2016). Impact of casual leisure on serious leisure experiences and identity in a Canadian junior hockey context. Leisure/Loisir, 40(3), 325-343.
McCarville, R.E., Shaw, S.M., & Ritchie, M. (2013). Shopping as leisure: A study of avid shoppers. World Leisure Journal, 55(2), 167-178.
McDonald, R. E., Wagner, T., & Minor, M. S. (2008). Cheers! A means-end chain analysis of college students’ bar-choice motivations. Annals of Leisure Research, 11, 386-403.
Mandin, T. G. (1998). Jazz as serious leisure. Masters thesis, Department of Physical Education and Recreational Studies. University of Manitoba (Canada).
Mueller, T. S. (2012). The recreational sport participation scale: Development, testing and practical application. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 12(3-4), 144-158.
Munusturlar, M. A., & Argan, M. (2016). Development of the serious and casual leisure measure. World Leisure Journal, 58(2), 124-141. DOI: 10.1080/16078055.2015.1126759
Nawjin, J., & Veenhoven, R. (2013). Happiness through leisure. In T. Friere (Ed.), Positive leisure science: From subjective experience to social contexts (pp. 193-209). Dordrecht: Springer.
Nimrod, G. (2010). The fun culture in seniors' online communities. The Gerontologist, 51(2), 226-237.
Nimrod, G., & Adoni, H. (2012). Conceptualizing e-leisure. Loisir et Société/Society and Leisure, 35(1), 31-56.
Nimrod, G. (2014). The benefits of and constraints to participation in seniors’ online communities. Leisure Studies, 33, 247-266.
Pagliarin, S. (2013). Working entertainment: The knowledge, emotional and physical labour performed by entertainment workers in the Italian tourist industry. In F.M. Lo Verde, I. Modi, & G. Cappello (Eds.), Mapping leisure across borders (pp. 252-270). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Patterson, I. (2004). Snoezelen as a casual leisure activity for people with a developmental disability. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 38(3), 289-300.
Punzo, V., Sonzogni, B., & Ceconni, F. (2013). A computational approach to the study of deviant leisure. In F.M. Lo Verde, I. Modi, & G. Cappello (Eds.), Mapping leisure across borders (pp. 311-325). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Rojek, C. (1999). Deviant leisure: the dark side of free-time activity. In E. L. Jackson and T. L. Burton (Eds.), Leisure studies: Prospects for the twenty-first century (pp. 81-96). State College, PA: Venture.
Rojek, C. (2005). Leisure theory: Principles and practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sassatelli, R. (2013). Beyond play, playfully: The cultural location of fitness activities. In F.M. Lo Verde, I. Modi, & G. Cappello (Eds.), Mapping leisure across borders (pp. 206-228). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Schaller, R., Marvey, M., & Elsweiler, D. (2012). Improving search experience on distributed leisure events. Available online at:
Scott, D. (2012). Serious leisure and recreation specialization: An uneasy marriage. Leisure Sciences, 34, 366-371.
(see also) Stebbins, R. A. (2012). Comment on Scott: Recreation specialization and the CL-SL continuum. Leisure Sciences, 34, 372-374.
(see also) Kuentzel, W. F. (2012). Comment on Scott: Is integration better?” Leisure Sciences, 34, 375-376.
Shen, X. S., & Yarnal, C. (2010). Blowing open the serious leisure-casual leisure dichotomy: What's in there? Leisure Sciences, 32, 162-179.
Shinew, K. J., & Parry, D. C. (2005). Examining college students’ participation in the leisure pursuits of drinking and illegal drug use. Journal of Leisure Research, 37, 364-387.
Stebbins, R. A. (1996). Casual and serious leisure and post-traditional thought in the information age. World Leisure & Recreation, 38(3), 4-11.
Stebbins, R. A. (1997). Casual leisure: A conceptual statement. Leisure Studies, 16, 17-25.
Stebbins, R. A. (1998). After work: The search for an optimal leisure lifestyle. Calgary, AB: Detselig.
Stebbins, R. A. (2000). Optimal leisure lifestyle: Combining serious and casual leisure for personal well-being. In M. C. Cabeza (Ed.), Leisure and human development: Proposals for the 6th World Leisure Congress. (pp. 101-107). Bilbao, Spain: University of Deusto.
Stebbins, R. A. (2001). New directions in the theory and research of serious leisure. Mellen Studies in Sociology, 28. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen.
Stebbins, R. A. (2001). The costs and benefits of hedonism: Some consequences of taking casual leisure seriously. Leisure Studies, 20, 305-309.
Stebbins, R. A. (2003). Casual leisure. In J. M. Jenkins & J. J. Pigram (Eds.), Encyclopedia of leisure and outdoor recreation (pp. 44-46). London: Routledge.
Stebbins, R.A. (2003). “Leisure Reflections” on relaxation. LSA Newsletter article, no. 4 (see Digital Library).
Stebbins, R. A. (2004). Pleasurable aerobic activity: A type of casual leisure with salubrious implications. World Leisure Journal, 46(4), 55-58.
Stebbins, R. A. (2005). Challenging mountain nature: Risk, motive, and lifestyle in three hobbyist sports. Calgary, AB: Detselig. (See chap. 7.)
Stebbins, R. A. (2007). The sociology of entertainment. In C. D. Bryant & D. L. Peck (Eds.), 21st century sociology: A reference handbook (Vol. 2, pp. 178-185, chap. 21). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Stebbins, R. A. (2007). Leisure and popular culture. In G. Ritzer (Ed.), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology (Vol. 6, pp. 2596-2600) Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Stebbins, R. A. (2012). Comment on Scott: Recreation specialization and the CL-SL continuum. Leisure Sciences, 34, 372-374.
Stebbins, R. A. (2013). “Leisure Reflections” on play. LSA Newsletter article, no. 34 (see Digital Library).
Su, K.-H. (2007). Effects of a serious leisure education program on perceptions of serious leisure behavior in Taiwan college students: A case of bird-watching, Doctoral thesis, Graduate School of Education, Health, and Human Services, Kent State University (USA).
Thompson, K., Palmer, C., & Raven, M. (2011). Drinkers, non-drinkers and deferrers: Reconsidering the beer/footy couplet amongst Australian Rules football fans. Australian Journal of Anthropology, 22(3), 388-408.
Tomazos, K.,& Butler, R. (2013). Volunteer tourists in the field: A question of balance? Tourism Management, 33(1), 177–187.
Verbakel, E. (2013). Leisure values of Europeans from 46 countries. European Sociological Review, 29(3), 669-682.
Voigt, C., Howatt, G., & Brown, G. (2010). Hedonic and eudaimonic experiences among wellness tourists: An exploratory enquiry. Annals of Leisure Research, 13, 541-562.
Wearing, S. L., McDonald, M., & Wearing, M. (2013). Consumer culture, the mobilisation of the narcissistic self and adolescent deviant leisure. Leisure Studies, 32, 367-382.
Wilkening, K. L. (2004). Vehicle theft as leisure activity: A study of young offenders and their lifestyle centered on pin money economics. Masters thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Calgary (Canada).
Williams, D. J., Thomas, J. N., & Arntfield, M. (2017). An empirical exploration of leisure-related themes and potential constraints across descriptions of serial homicide cases. Leisure Sciences, https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/10.1080/01490400.2017.1384941.
Wilson, M. L., Alhodaithi, B., & Hurst, M. (2012). A diary study of information needs produced in casual-leisure reading situations. Available online at:
Wilson, M. L. & Elsweiler, D. (2010) Casual-leisure Searching: the Exploratory Search scenarios that break our current models. In: 4th International Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval, Aug 22 2010, New Brunswick, NJ. pp 28-31.
Young, J., McGrath, R., & Adams, C. (2018) Fresh air, sunshine and happiness: Millennials building health (salutogenesis) in leisure and nature, Annals of Leisure Research, DOI: 10.1080/11745398.2018.1458634